Mosegaard – Surgical Simulation of Heart Surgery

Real-time heart tissue cutting simulation. See the “SURGICAL SIMULATION OF CONGENITAL HEART SURGERY” section of Mosegaard’s project website.


Soft tissue

  • S. Barre, C. Fernandez-Maloigne, P. Paume, and G. Subrenat, “Simulating facial surgery,” , vol. 3960, p. 334, 2000.
      author = {Barre, S. and Fernandez-Maloigne, C. and Paume, P. and Subrenat,
      title = {Simulating facial surgery},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of SPIE},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {3960},
      pages = {334},
      file = {Barre2000.pdf:Barre2000.pdf:PDF},
      keywords = {TEC},
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      timestamp = {2011.01.12}
  • M. Baumhauer, M. Feuerstein, H. P. Meinzer, and J. Rassweiler, “Navigation in endoscopic soft tissue surgery: perspectives and limitations,” Journal of Endourology, vol. 22, iss. 4, pp. 751-766, 2008.
      author = {Baumhauer, M. and Feuerstein, M. and Meinzer, H.P. and Rassweiler,
      title = {Navigation in endoscopic soft tissue surgery: perspectives and limitations},
      journal = {Journal of Endourology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {22},
      pages = {751 - 766},
      number = {4},
      file = {Baumhauer2008.pdf:Baumhauer2008.pdf:PDF},
      issn = {0892-7790},
      keywords = {REV, TAS},
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      publisher = {Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2 Madison Avenue Larchmont, NY 10538 USA},
      timestamp = {2011.01.26}
  • D. Bielser and M. H. Gross, “Interactive simulation of surgical cuts,” , pp. 116-442, 2002.
      author = {Bielser, D. and Gross, M.H.},
      title = {Interactive simulation of surgical cuts},
      booktitle = {Computer Graphics and Applications, 2000. Proceedings. The Eighth
      Pacific Conference on},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {116--442},
      organization = {IEEE},
      isbn = {0769508685},
      keywords = {TEC}
  • M. Chabanas and Y. PAVAN, “Finite element model of the face soft tissue for computer assisted maxillofacial surgery,” , 2001.
      author = {Chabanas, M. and PAVAN, Y.},
      title = {Finite element model of the face soft tissue for computer assisted
      maxillofacial surgery},
      ENGINEERING (5.: 2001: Rome). Anais. Rome},
      year = {2001},
      file = {Chabanas2001.pdf:Chabanas2001.pdf:PDF},
      keywords = {OCS, TEC, CMS, SUR},
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      timestamp = {2011.01.10}
  • S. Cotin, H. Delingette, and N. Ayache, “Real-time elastic deformations of soft tissues for surgery simulation,” Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 5, iss. 1, pp. 62-73, 1999.
      author = {Cotin, S. and Delingette, H. and Ayache, N.},
      title = {Real-time elastic deformations of soft tissues for surgery simulation},
      journal = {Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {5},
      pages = {62 - 73},
      number = {1},
      abstract = {We describe a novel method for surgery simulation including a volumetric
      model built from medical images and an elastic modeling of the deformations.
      The physical model is based on elasticity theory which suitably links
      the shape of deformable bodies and the forces associated with the
      deformation. A real time computation of the deformation is possible
      thanks to a preprocessing of elementary deformations derived from
      a finite element method. This method has been implemented in a system
      including a force feedback device and a collision detection algorithm.
      The simulator works in real time with a high resolution liver model},
      file = {Cotin1999.pdf:Cotin1999.pdf:PDF},
      issn = {1077-2626},
      keywords = {collision detection algorithm;deformable bodies;elastic modeling;elasticity
      theory;elementary deformations;finite element method;force feedback
      device;high resolution liver model;medical images;physical model;preprocessing;real
      time computation;real time elastic deformations;soft tissues;surgery
      simulation;volumetric model;biomechanics;computer graphics;digital
      simulation;elastic deformation;finite element analysis;medical computing;real-time
      systems;surgery;, APP, VOR, OCS, PRS},
      owner = {Thomas},
      timestamp = {2011.02.15}
  • H. Courtecuisse, H. Jung, J. Allard, Christian Duriez, D. Y. Lee, and S. Cotin, “GPU-based real-time soft tissue deformation with cutting and haptic feedback,” Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, vol. 103, iss. 2-3, pp. 159-168, 2010.
      author = {Hadrien Courtecuisse and Hoeryong Jung and Jérémie Allard and Christian
      Duriez and Doo Yong Lee and Stéphane Cotin},
      title = {GPU-based real-time soft tissue deformation with cutting and haptic
      journal = {Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {103},
      pages = {159 - 168},
      number = {2-3},
      abstract = {This article describes a series of contributions in the field of real-time
      simulation of soft tissue biomechanics. These contributions address
      various requirements for interactive simulation of complex surgical
      procedures. In particular, this article presents results in the areas
      of soft tissue deformation, contact modelling, simulation of cutting,
      and haptic rendering, which are all relevant to a variety of medical
      interventions. The contributions described in this article share
      a common underlying model of deformation and rely on GPU implementations
      to significantly improve computation times. This consistency in the
      modelling technique and computational approach ensures coherent results
      as well as efficient, robust and flexible solutions.},
      file = {Courtecuisse2010.pdf:Courtecuisse2010.pdf:PDF},
      issn = {0079-6107},
      keywords = {Biomechanics, PRS, TEC},
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      timestamp = {2011.01.26}
  • B. Dagon, C. Baur, and V. Bettschart, “Real-time update of 3D deformable models for computer aided liver surgery,” , pp. 1-4, 2009.
      author = {Dagon, B. and Baur, C. and Bettschart, V.},
      title = {Real-time update of 3D deformable models for computer aided liver
      booktitle = {Pattern Recognition, 2008. ICPR 2008. 19th International Conference
      year = {2009},
      pages = {1 - 4},
      organization = {IEEE},
      abstract = {Providing accurate image-guidance for soft-tissue interventions remains
      a complex task. Most of the time, preoperative models and planning
      data are no more valid during the surgical process due to motions
      and deformations of the organ of interest. In this paper, two core
      components of a computer-assisted system for liver surgery are presented.
      One is an ultrasound segmentation techniques that allows for automatic
      liver vessels detection and the other is a mass-spring based deformable
      model used to update the shape of 3D models. Both have real-time
      capabilities and enable to update intraoperatively the data created
      during the planning phase.},
      file = {Dagon2009.pdf:Dagon2009.pdf:PDF},
      issn = {1051-4651},
      keywords = {TEC, PRS, HES},
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      timestamp = {2010.11.08}
  • H. Delingette, “Toward realistic soft-tissue modeling in medical simulation,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 86, iss. 3, pp. 512-523, 1998.
      author = {Delingette, H.},
      title = {Toward realistic soft-tissue modeling in medical simulation},
      journal = {Proceedings of the IEEE},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {86},
      pages = {512 - 523},
      number = {3},
      month = mar,
      abstract = {Most of today's medical simulation systems are based on geometric
      representations of anatomical structures that take no account of
      their physical nature. Representing physical phenomena and, more
      specifically, the realistic modeling of soft tissue will not only
      improve current medical simulation systems but will considerably
      enlarge the set of applications and the credibility of medical simulation,
      from neurosurgery planning to laparoscopic-surgery simulation. To
      achieve realistic tissue deformation, it is necessary to combine
      deformation accuracy with computer efficiency. On the one hand, biomechanics
      has studied complex mathematical models and produced a large amount
      of experimental data for accurately representing the deformation
      of soft tissue. On the other hand, computer graphics has proposed
      many algorithms for the real-time computation of deformable bodies,
      often at the cost of ignoring the physics principles. The author
      surveys existing models of deformation in medical simulation and
      analyze the impediments to combining computer-graphics representations
      with biomechanical models. In particular, the different geometric
      representations of deformable tissue are compared in relation to
      the tasks of real-time deformation, tissue cutting, and force-feedback
      interaction. Last, the author inspects the potential of medical simulation
      under the development of this key technology},
      file = {Delingette1998.pdf:Delingette1998.pdf:PDF},
      issn = {0018-9219},
      keywords = {anatomical structures;biomechanics;complex mathematical models;computer
      efficiency;computer graphics;computer-graphics representations;deformable
      tissue;deformation accuracy;force-feedback interaction;geometric
      representations;laparoscopic surgery simulation;medical simulation;neurosurgery
      planning;physical phenomena;real-time computation;real-time deformation;realistic
      soft-tissue modeling;realistic tissue deformation;tissue cutting;biomechanics;computer
      graphics;deformation;digital simulation;finite element analysis;medical
      image processing;planning;, TEC},
      owner = {Thomas},
      timestamp = {2011.02.15}
  • E. Gladilin, S. Zachow, P. Deuflhard, and H. Hege, “Anatomy- and physics-based facial animation for craniofacial surgery simulations,” Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, vol. 42, pp. 167-170, 2004.
      author = {Gladilin, E. and Zachow, S. and Deuflhard, P. and Hege, H.},
      title = {Anatomy- and physics-based facial animation for craniofacial surgery
      journal = {Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {42},
      pages = {167 - 170},
      abstract = {A modelling approach for the realistic simulation of facial expressions
      of emotion in craniofacial surgery planning is presented. The method
      is different from conventional, non-physical techniques for character
      animation in computer graphics. A consistent physiological mechanism
      for facial expressions was assumed, which was the effect of contracting
      muscles on soft tissues. For the numerical solution of the linear
      elastic boundary values, the finite element method on tetrahedral
      grids was used. The approach was validated on a geometrical model
      of a human head derived from tomographic data. Using this model,
      individual facial expressions of emotion were estimated by the superpositioning
      of precomputed single muscle actions.},
      affiliation = {Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin (ZIB) Berlin Germany
      Berlin Germany},
      file = {Gladilin2004.pdf:Gladilin2004.pdf:PDF},
      issn = {0140-0118},
      issue = {2},
      keyword = {Medicine},
      keywords = {TEC, PRS, OCS},
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
      timestamp = {2011.01.10}
  • M. Hauth, Visual simulation of deformable models, Eberhard-Karls-Universitat Tubingen, Germany, Dissertation, 2004.
      title = {Visual simulation of deformable models},
      publisher = {Eberhard-Karls-Universitat Tubingen, Germany, Dissertation},
      year = {2004},
      author = {Hauth, M.},
      file = {Hauth2004.pdf:Hauth2004.pdf:PDF},
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      timestamp = {2011.01.07}
  • D. J. Hawkes, D. Barratt, J. M. Blackall, C. Chan, P. J. Edwards, K. Rhode, G. P. Penney, J. McClelland, and D. L. G. Hill, “Tissue deformation and shape models in image-guided interventions: a discussion paper.,” Medical image analysis, vol. 9, iss. 2, pp. 163-75, 2005.
      author = {Hawkes, D J and Barratt, D and Blackall, J M and Chan, C and Edwards,
      P J and Rhode, K and Penney, G P and McClelland, J and Hill, D L
      title = {Tissue deformation and shape models in image-guided interventions:
      a discussion paper.},
      journal = {Medical image analysis},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {9},
      pages = {163-75},
      number = {2},
      month = {April},
      abstract = {This paper promotes the concept of active models in image-guided interventions.
      We outline the limitations of the rigid body assumption in image-guided
      interventions and describe how intraoperative imaging provides a
      rich source of information on spatial location of anatomical structures
      and therapy devices, allowing a preoperative plan to be updated during
      an intervention. Soft tissue deformation and variation from an atlas
      to a particular individual can both be determined using non-rigid
      registration. Established methods using free-form deformations have
      a very large number of degrees of freedom. Three examples of deformable
      models--motion models, biomechanical models and statistical shape
      models--are used to illustrate how prior information can be used
      to restrict the number of degrees of freedom of the registration
      algorithm and thus provide active models for image-guided interventions.
      We provide preliminary results from applications for each type of
      file = {Hawkes2005.pdf:Hawkes2005.pdf:PDF},
      issn = {1361-8415},
      keywords = {Algorithms,Computer Simulation,Connective Tissue,Connective Tissue:
      pathology,Connective Tissue: physiopathology,Connective Tissue: surgery,Elasticity,Image
      Enhancement,Image Enhancement: methods,Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted,Image
      Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: methods,Models, Biological,Movement,Subtraction
      Technique,Surgery, Computer-Assisted,Surgery, Computer-Assisted:
      methods, TEC},
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      pmid = {15721231},
      timestamp = {2010.10.22}
  • E. Keeve, S. Girod, P. Pfeifle, and B. Girod, “Anatomy-Based Facial Tissue Modeling Using the Finite Element Method,” , 1996.
      author = {Keeve, Erwin and Girod, Sabine and Pfeifle, Paula and Girod, Bernd},
      title = {Anatomy-Based Facial Tissue Modeling Using the Finite Element Method},
      year = {1996},
      abstract = {Anatomy-based facial tissue modeling for surgical simulation is a
      field whose time has come. Real-time facial animation has been created
      in the last few years using models based on the anatomical structure
      of the human skin. Anatomy-based models are also under development
      in the field of medical visualization, with which facial surgery
      can be realistically simulated. In this article we present an anatomy-based
      3D finite element tissue model. Integrated into a computer-aided
      surgical planning system this model allows the precise prediction
      of soft tissue changes resulting from the realignment of the underlying
      bone structure. The model has already been used in our Department
      of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and has improved craniofacial surgical
      planning procedures. The model is described in detail and surgical
      simulation results are shown and discussed.},
      file = {Keeve1996b.pdf:Keeve1996b.pdf:PDF},
      keywords = {computer-aided surgery,finite element method,human facial modeling,surgery
      planning and simulation, TEC},
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      timestamp = {2010.10.22}
  • a Kerdok, “Truth cube: Establishing physical standards for soft tissue simulation,” Medical Image Analysis, vol. 7, iss. 3, pp. 283-291, 2003.
      author = {Kerdok, a},
      title = {Truth cube: Establishing physical standards for soft tissue simulation},
      journal = {Medical Image Analysis},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {7},
      pages = {283-291},
      number = {3},
      month = {September},
      abstract = {Accurate real-time models of soft tissue behavior are key elements
      in medical simulation systems. The need for fast computation in these
      simulations, however, often requires simplifications that limit deformation
      accuracy.Validation of these simplified models remains a challenge.
      Currently, real-time modeling is at best validated against finite
      element models that have their own intrinsic limitations. This study
      develops a physical standard to validate real-time soft tissue deformation
      models.We took CT images of a cube of silicone rubber with a pattern
      of embedded Teflon spheres that underwent uniaxial compression and
      spherical indentation tests. The known material properties, geometry
      and controlled boundary conditions resulted in a complete set of
      volumetric displacement data. The results were compared to a finite
      element model analysis of identical situations. This work has served
      as a proof of concept for a robust physical standard for use in validating
      soft tissue models. A},
      file = {Kerdok2003.pdf:Kerdok2003.pdf:PDF},
      issn = {13618415},
      keywords = {model validation,physical standard,real-time models,soft tissue mechanics,surgical
      simulation, TEC},
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      timestamp = {2010.10.22}
  • S. Lee, M. Lerotic, V. Vitiello, S. Giannarou, K. Kwok, M. Visentini-Scarzanella, and G. Yang, “From medical images to minimally invasive intervention: Computer assistance for robotic surgery.,” Computerized medical imaging and graphics : the official journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society, vol. 34, iss. 1, pp. 33-45, 2010.
      author = {Lee, Su-Lin and Lerotic, Mirna and Vitiello, Valentina and Giannarou,
      Stamatia and Kwok, Ka-Wai and Visentini-Scarzanella, Marco and Yang,
      title = {From medical images to minimally invasive intervention: Computer
      assistance for robotic surgery.},
      journal = {Computerized medical imaging and graphics : the official journal
      of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {34},
      pages = {33-45},
      number = {1},
      month = {January},
      abstract = {Minimally invasive surgery has been established as an important way
      forward in surgery for reducing patient trauma and hospitalization
      with improved prognosis. The introduction of robotic assistance enhances
      the manual dexterity and accuracy of instrument manipulation. Further
      development of the field in using pre- and intra-operative imaging
      guidance requires the integration of the general anatomy of the patient
      with clear pathologic indications and geometrical information for
      preoperative planning and intra-operative manipulation. It also requires
      effective visualization and the recreation of haptic and tactile
      sensing with dynamic active constraints to improve consistency and
      safety of the surgical procedures. This paper describes key technical
      considerations of tissue deformation tracking, 3D reconstruction,
      subject-specific modeling, image guidance and augmented reality for
      robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery. It highlights the importance
      of adapting preoperative surgical planning according to intra-operative
      data and illustrates how dynamic information such as tissue deformation
      can be incorporated into the surgical navigation framework. Some
      of the recent trends are discussed in terms of instrument design
      and the usage of dynamic active constraints and human-robot perceptual
      docking for robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery.},
      file = {Lee2010.pdf:Lee2010.pdf:PDF},
      issn = {1879-0771},
      keywords = {Computer Simulation,Elasticity Imaging Techniques,Elasticity Imaging
      Techniques: methods,Humans,Imaging, Three-Dimensional,Imaging, Three-Dimensional:
      methods,Models, Biological,Robotics,Robotics: methods,Surgery, Computer-Assisted,Surgery,
      Computer-Assisted: methods,Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive,Surgical
      Procedures, Minimally Invasive: methods,User-Computer Interface},
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      pmid = {19699056},
      timestamp = {2010.10.22}
  • Y. Lee, D. Terzopoulos, and K. Waters, “Realistic modeling for facial animation,” , pp. 55-62, 1995.
      author = {Lee, Y. and Terzopoulos, D. and Waters, K.},
      title = {Realistic modeling for facial animation},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference on Computer graphics and
      interactive techniques},
      year = {1995},
      pages = {55 - 62},
      organization = {ACM},
      file = {Lee1995.pdf:Lee1995.pdf:PDF},
      isbn = {0897917014},
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      timestamp = {2011.01.03}
  • M. Nakao, T. Kuroda, H. Oyama, G. Sakaguchi, and M. Komeda, “Physics-Based Simulation of Surgical Fields for Preoperative Strategic Planning,” Journal of Medical Systems, vol. 30, pp. 371-380, 2006.
      author = {Nakao, Megumi and Kuroda, Tomohiro and Oyama, Hiroshi and Sakaguchi,
      Genichi and Komeda, Masashi},
      title = {Physics-Based Simulation of Surgical Fields for Preoperative Strategic
      journal = {Journal of Medical Systems},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {30},
      pages = {371-380},
      abstract = {Although careful planning of surgical approach is a key for success
      of surgery, conventional planning and simulation tools cannot support
      detailed discussion. This issue is derived from the difficulty of
      estimating complex physical behavior of soft tissues provided by
      a series of surgical procedures like cutting and deformation. This
      paper proposes an adaptive physics-based framework that simulates
      both interactive cutting and accurate deformation on virtual bodies,
      and performs preoperative planning for supporting strategic discussion.
      We focus on limited use of the two models: A particle-based model
      and an FEM-based model considering required quality and performance
      in different situations. FEM-based deformation of incision accurately
      produces estimated surgical fields. Based on the framework, a strategic
      planning system was developed for supporting decision of surgical
      approach using 3D representation of the surgical fields. We applied
      clinical CT dataset of an aortic aneurysm case to the system. Some
      experiments and usability tests confirmed that the system contributes
      to grasping 3D shape and location of the target organs and performs
      detailed discussion on patient-specific surgical approaches.},
      affiliation = {Nara Institute of Science and Technology Graduate School of Information
      Science 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma Nara Japan},
      file = {Nakao2006.pdf:Nakao2006.pdf:PDF},
      issn = {0148-5598},
      issue = {5},
      keyword = {Medicine},
      keywords = {TEC},
      owner = {Thomas},
      publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
      timestamp = {2011.03.09},
      url = {}
  • M. Nakao, H. Oyama, M. Komori, T. Matsuda, G. Sakaguchi, M. Komeda, and T. Takahashi, “Haptic reproduction and interactive visualization of a beating heart for cardiovascular surgery simulation.,” International journal of medical informatics, vol. 68, iss. 1-3, pp. 155-63, 2002.
      author = {Nakao, M and Oyama, H and Komori, M and Matsuda, T and Sakaguchi,
      G and Komeda, M and Takahashi, T},
      title = {Haptic reproduction and interactive visualization of a beating heart
      for cardiovascular surgery simulation.},
      journal = {International journal of medical informatics},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {68},
      pages = {155-63},
      number = {1-3},
      month = {December},
      abstract = {This paper aims to achieve haptic reproduction and real-time visualization
      of a beating heart for cardiac surgery simulation. Unlike most forgoing
      approaches, the authors focus on time series datasets and propose
      a new framework for interactive simulation of active tissues. The
      framework handles both detection and response of collisions between
      a manipulator and a beating virtual heart. Physics-based force feedback
      of autonomous cardiac motion is also produced based on a stress-pressure
      model, which is adapted to elastic objects filled with fluid. Time
      series datasets of an adult man were applied to an integrated simulation
      system with a force feedback device. The system displays multi-dimensional
      representation of a beating heart and provides a basic training environment
      for surgical palpation. Finally, results of measurement and medical
      assessment confirm the achieved quality and performance of the presented
      annote = {Mention this paper in survey paper},
      file = {Nakao2002.pdf:Nakao2002.pdf:PDF},
      issn = {1386-5056},
      keywords = {Algorithms,Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures,Computer Graphics,Computer
      Simulation,Computer-Assisted Instruction,Heart,Heart: physiology,Humans,Male,Models,
      Cardiovascular,Myocardial Contraction,Palpation,User-Computer Interface,
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      pmid = {12467799},
      timestamp = {2010.10.22}
  • H. Nienhuys and A. Frank van der Stappen, “A Surgery Simulation Supporting Cuts and Finite Element Deformation,” in Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2001, W. Niessen and M. Viergever, Eds., Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2001, vol. 2208, pp. 145-152.
      author = {Nienhuys, Han-Wen and Frank van der Stappen, A.},
      title = {A Surgery Simulation Supporting Cuts and Finite Element Deformation},
      booktitle = {Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI
      publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
      year = {2001},
      editor = {Niessen, Wiro and Viergever, Max},
      volume = {2208},
      series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
      pages = {145 - 152},
      abstract = {Interactive surgery simulations have conflicting requirements of speed
      and accuracy. In this paper we show how to combine a relatively accurate
      deformation model—the Finite Element (FE) method— and interactive
      cutting without requiring expensive matrix updates or precomputation.
      Our approach uses an iterative algorithm for an interactive linear
      FE deformation simulation. The iterative process requires no global
      precomputation, so runtime changes of the mesh, i.e. cuts, can be
      simulated efficiently. Cuts are performed along faces of the mesh;
      this prevents growth of the mesh. We present a provably correct method
      for changing the mesh topology, and a satisfactory heuristic for
      determining along which faces to perform cuts. Nodes within the mesh
      are relocated to align the mesh with a virtual scalpel. This prevents
      a jagged surface appearance, but also generates degeneracies, which
      are removed afterwards.},
      affiliation = {Institute of Information and Computing Sciences, Utrecht University,
      PO Box 80089, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands},
      file = {Nienhuys2001.pdf:Nienhuys2001.pdf:PDF},
      keywords = {APP, PRS},
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      timestamp = {2011.01.26}
  • a Radetzky, “Visualization and simulation techniques for surgical simulators using actual patient’s data,” Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, vol. 26, iss. 3, pp. 255-279, 2002.
      author = {Radetzky, a},
      title = {Visualization and simulation techniques for surgical simulators using
      actual patient's data},
      journal = {Artificial Intelligence in Medicine},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {26},
      pages = {255 - 279},
      number = {3},
      month = {November},
      abstract = {Because of the increasing complexity of surgical interventions research
      in surgical simulation became more and more important over the last
      years. However, the simulation of tissue deformation is still a challenging
      problem, mainly due to the short response times that are required
      for real-time interaction. The demands to hard and software are even
      larger if not only the modeled human anatomy is used but the anatomy
      of actual patients. This is required if the surgical simulator should
      be used as training medium for expert surgeons rather than students.
      In this article, suitable visualization and simulation methods for
      surgical simulation utilizing actual patient’s datasets are described.
      Therefore, the advantages and disadvantages of direct and indirect
      volume rendering for the visualization are discussed and a neuro-fuzzy
      system is described, which can be used for the simulation of interactive
      tissue deformations. The neuro-fuzzy system makes it possible to
      define the deformation behavior based on a linguistic description
      of the tissue characteristics or to learn the dynamics by using measured
      data of real tissue. Furthermore, a simulator for minimally-invasive
      neurosurgical interventions is presented that utilizes the described
      visualization and simulation methods. The structure of the simulator
      is described in detail and the results of a system evaluation by
      an experienced neurosurgeon—a quantitative comparison between different
      methods of virtual endoscopy as well as a comparison between real
      brain images and virtual endoscopies—are given. The evaluation
      proved that the simulator provides a higher realism of the visualization
      and simulation then other currently available simulators.},
      file = {Radetzky2002.pdf:Radetzky2002.pdf:PDF},
      issn = {09333657},
      keywords = {actual patient,deformation,neuro-fuzzy systems,s,surgiality,surgical
      simulation,visualization, REV, PRS},
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      timestamp = {2010.10.25}
  • M. Teschner, “Realistic modeling of elasto-mechanical properties of soft tissue and its evaluation,” International Congress Series, vol. 1230, pp. 51-56, 2001.
      author = {Teschner, M},
      title = {Realistic modeling of elasto-mechanical properties of soft tissue
      and its evaluation},
      journal = {International Congress Series},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {1230},
      pages = {51 - 56},
      month = {June},
      abstract = {Computer-based techniques for the simulation of craniofacial surgical
      procedures and for the prediction of the surgical outcome have been
      shown to be very useful. However, the assessment of the accuracy
      of the simulated surgical outcome is difficult. In this paper, a
      technique is described, which allows to compare the simulated surgical
      outcome and the actual surgical result. The surgery simulation is
      based on a preoperative CT scan of the patient’s head and on a preoperative
      surface scan of the patient’s face. The simulated postoperative patient’s
      appearance is compared to a second surface scan, which is obtained
      postoperatively. The pre- and postoperative surface scans, which
      are different due to the surgery, are registered employing a robust
      registration method, which minimizes the median of Euclidean distances
      of corresponding points. Parameters of the soft-tissue model, which
      is used for the surgical simulation process, can be adapted with
      respect to minimized differences of corresponding points of the simulated
      postoperative and the actual postoperative surface of a patient’s
      file = {Teschner2001.pdf:Teschner2001.pdf:PDF},
      issn = {05315131},
      keywords = {elasto-mechanical properties,realistic modeling,soft tissue, TEC,
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      timestamp = {2010.10.25}
  • S. Wang and J. Yang, “Efficient collision detection for soft tissue simulation in a surgical planning system,” in Computer-Aided Design and Computer Graphics, 2009. CAD/Graphics ’09. 11th IEEE International Conference on, 2009, pp. 49-53.
      author = {Shengzheng Wang and Jie Yang},
      title = {Efficient collision detection for soft tissue simulation in a surgical
      planning system},
      booktitle = {Computer-Aided Design and Computer Graphics, 2009. CAD/Graphics '09.
      11th IEEE International Conference on},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {49 -53},
      month = {August},
      abstract = {In the field of cranio-maxillofacial surgery, there is a huge demand
      from surgeons to be able to automatically predict the post-operative
      face appearance in terms of a pre-specified bone-remodeling plan.
      Collision detection is a promising means to achieve this simulation.
      In this paper, therefore, an efficient collision detection method
      based on a new 3D signed distance field algorithm is proposed to
      accurately detect the contact positions and compute the penetration
      depth with the moving of the bones in the simulation, and thus the
      contact force between the bones and the soft tissues can be estimated
      using penalty methods. Thereafter, a nonlinear finite element model
      is employed to compute the deformation of the soft tissue model.
      The performance of the proposed collision detection algorithm has
      been improved in memory requirements and computational efficiency
      against the conventional methods. In addition, the proposed approach
      has the superior convergence characteristics against other methods.
      Therefore, the usage of the collision detection method can effectively
      assist surgeons in automatically predicting the pos-operative face
      file = {Wang2009.pdf:Wang2009.pdf:PDF},
      keywords = {3D signed distance field algorithm;bone-remodeling planing;collision
      detection algorithm;convergence characteristics;cranio-maxillofacial
      surgery;nonlinear finite element model;penetration depth computation;soft
      tissue simulation;surgical planning system;biomechanics;bone;convergence;deformation;finite
      element analysis;medical computing;physiological models;surgery;,
      CMS, OCS, PLA, TEC},
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      timestamp = {2010.11.02}
  • S. Zachow, E. Gladiline, H. Hege, and P. Deuflhard, “Finite-element simulation of soft tissue deformation,” , pp. 23-28, 2000.
      author = {Zachow, S. and Gladiline, E. and Hege, HC and Deuflhard, P.},
      title = {Finite-element simulation of soft tissue deformation},
      booktitle = {Proc. CARS},
      year = {2000},
      pages = {23 - 28},
      organization = {Citeseer},
      owner = {thomaskroes},
      timestamp = {2011.01.03}


  • T. Sørensen and J. Mosegaard, “An introduction to GPU accelerated surgical simulation,” Biomedical Simulation, pp. 93-104, 2006.
      author = {S{\o}rensen, T. and Mosegaard, J.},
      title = {An introduction to GPU accelerated surgical simulation},
      journal = {Biomedical Simulation},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {93 - 104},
      file = {Sorensen2006.pdf:Sorensen2006.pdf:PDF},
      keywords = {GPU, PRS, OCS, TEC},
      owner = {Thomas},
      publisher = {Springer},
      timestamp = {2011.02.23}


  • X. Liu and L. Mao, “Visual simulation of soft tissue deformation,” in Computer and Communication Technologies in Agriculture Engineering (CCTAE), 2010 International Conference On, 2010, pp. 548-551.
      author = {Xuemei Liu and Lei Mao},
      title = {Visual simulation of soft tissue deformation},
      booktitle = {Computer and Communication Technologies in Agriculture Engineering
      (CCTAE), 2010 International Conference On},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {3},
      pages = {548 - 551},
      month = {June},
      abstract = {Simulating the behavior of elastic objects is an important research
      in the field of virtual reality. Visual simulation of soft tissue
      deformation is the core part of the surgery simulation system. However,
      there is not a uniform deformable model. To choose a suitable model
      for surgery simulation, a classification of deformation models is
      offered in this paper. The deformable model can divide into the non-physically
      model, the physically model and the hybrid model. The advantages
      and disadvantages of three models are discussed in detail. The comparative
      analyses indicate that the hybrid model is a promising approach,
      which can satisfy the requirements of the surgery simulation system.
      This research achievement is significant for completing the simulation
      technology of soft tissue deformation and developing the real-time
      surgery simulation system.},
      file = {Liu2010.pdf:Liu2010.pdf:PDF},
      keywords = {soft tissue deformation;surgery simulation system;virtual reality;visual
      simulation;biological tissues;data visualisation;digital simulation;medical
      computing;surgery;virtual reality;, TEC, OCS},
      owner = {Thomas},
      timestamp = {2011.02.23}
  • S. Misra, K. Ramesh, and A. M. Okamura, “Modeling of tool-tissue interactions for computer-based surgical simulation: a literature review,” , 2008.
      author = {Misra, S. and Ramesh, KT and Okamura, A.M.},
      title = {Modeling of tool-tissue interactions for computer-based surgical
      simulation: a literature review},
      year = {2008},
      file = {Misra2008.pdf:Misra2008.pdf:PDF},
      keywords = {TEC, REV},
      owner = {Thomas},
      publisher = {MIT Press},
      timestamp = {2011.02.23}


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